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Risk of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections - A 13-year nationwide population-based study.

J Cardiol. 2019 Oct;74(4):333-338

Authors: Wu VC, Chen TH, Wu M, Huang CH, Chen SW, Cheng CW, Lin YS, Chang PC, Hsieh MJ, Wang CY, Chang SH, Wang CL, Chu PH, Wu CS

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events than chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). We aimed to investigate whether there is higher risk of arrhythmia in HCV infection.
METHODS: Electronic medical records from National Health Institute Research Database during 2000-2012 were retrieved for patients with HBV or HCV. Patients with missing information, aged <18 years, diagnosed with HBV or HCV before year 2000, concomitant HBV and HCV, coagulopathy or organ transplant, history of arrhythmia, device implantation, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, thyroid disease, alcohol or drug abuse, valvular heart disease, or follow-up <6 months were excluded. Primary outcomes were cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: After 1:1 propensity score matching, 5480 patients with HBV and 5480 patients with HCV were included for study. During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher in the HCV patients than in HBV patients [hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.58]. There was also a trend toward higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (HR 1.25, 95% 0.98-1.59, p=0.070) and a significantly higher incidence of sick sinus syndrome (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.91) in HCV patients. In addition, among patients with all-cause mortality, arrhythmia death was significantly higher with chronic HCV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic viral hepatitis, patients with HCV were associated with significantly increased risks of sick sinus syndrome, and all-cause mortality compared to patients with HBV.

PMID: 30982681 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Medium- and long-term follow-up of transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm in Central Europe population.

J Cardiol. 2019 Oct;74(4):381-387

Authors: Galeczka M, Glowacki J, Yashchuk N, Ditkivskyy I, Rojczyk D, Knop M, Smerdzinski S, Cherpak B, Szkutnik M, Bialkowski J, Fiszer R, Lazoryshynets V

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate medium- and long-term outcomes of transcatheter closure (TC) of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (RSVA), which is a rare and mostly congenital heart disease.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis included 23 patients (14 males) aged 15-79 years (y; 39.9±18.5) selected for TC of RSVA between 2007 and 2017 in two tertiary centers in Poland and Ukraine. Fifteen patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV before TC; 5 patients had acquired RSVA after previous cardiac surgery. We applied 22 duct, 3 muscular, and 1 atrial septal Amplatzer or Amplatzer-like occluders by the anterograde venous approach after arterio-venous loop creation in all but 1 patient. Mean follow-up conducted in outpatient clinic was 5.5±3.5 (1-11)y.
RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 19/23 patients (82.6%). Four procedures were abandoned and the device percutaneously retrieved due to coronary artery compression (1 patient), transient increase of aortic regurgitation (AR; 1 patients) or embolization (2 patients). New onset of significant AR was noted in one of the latter patients after device removal. NYHA class improved in all treated patients but 2, in whom it remained stable (p<0.05), with 10 patients in class I. Three patients needed percutaneous re-intervention during follow-up because of significant residual shunt in 1 and late recurrent RSVA in 2 patients. The follow-up of the remaining patients was uneventful. Neither erosion, embolization, new AR, nor death were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous closure of RSVA is a safe and effective method of treatment with good clinical outcome. However, although not described previously, recurrent shunts after TC of RSVA are possible and can be treated successfully with another transcatheter intervention.

PMID: 31023567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Successful angioplasties using high pressure large balloons in a patient with severe anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis soon after single-lung transplantation.

J Cardiol Cases. 2020 Jul;22(1):22-25

Authors: Shiraga K, Hirata Y, Saito A, Ozcelik N, Asakai H, Inuzuka R, Soma K, Sato M, Hirata Y, Oka A

Abstract
A 59-year-old man received a single-lung transplantation due to interstitial pneumonitis. Severe anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) resulting in hypoxia and respiratory symptoms was found in the immediate postoperative period. A scintigraphy showed severe hypoperfusion of the left transplanted lung with 7% of the total pulmonary blood flow. On postoperative days (POD) 29 and 64, the patient underwent serial balloon angioplasties without any complications. Based on the balloon selection criteria for PAS after heart surgery in children, a high-pressure large balloon was used with resultant improvement in respiratory signs and symptoms without any complications. The patient was discharged on POD 92. A follow-up scintigraphy on POD 169 revealed 58% of blood distribution to the left lung. The patient has been doing clinically well and remained asymptomatic one year after the transplantation. Balloon angioplasty with a high-pressure large balloon without stent implantation during an early postoperative period may be a safe and effective strategy. The balloon selecting criteria used in pediatric patients may be applied in the adult lung transplant recipients. <Learning objective: Anastomotic pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) in a single-lung transplant recipient is a critical complication. A balloon angioplasty with a high-pressure large balloon should be a first choice for anastomotic PAS, because it is safer than stent implantation especially for transplant recipients. And the balloon selecting criteria used in children with congenital heart disease may be applied in the adult lung transplant recipients.>.

PMID: 32636964 [PubMed]

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Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Presenting in Adults: A Case Series With Review of Literature.

Cureus. 2020 Jun 01;12(6):e8388

Authors: Pendela VS, Tan BE, Chowdhury M, Chow M

Abstract
Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a congenital anomaly in which some of the pulmonary veins drain erroneously into the superior vena cava (SVC) or directly into the right atrium (RA). We present four cases of PAPVR presenting in adults. We discussed various presentations, diagnostic approaches and challenges in the management of these patients. Our first case had anomalous drainage from the right upper lobe of lung to SVC and was managed medically with riociguat and ambrisentan. The second patient had an unsuccessful attempt at repair of the anomalous vein. Our other two patients had right upper lobe veins draining into SVC. One of them had a successful surgical repair whereas the other patient declined surgery and is being monitored. In PAPVR patients, the decision for surgical repair depends on symptoms, shunt fraction, recurrent pulmonary infections, and concurrent indication for cardiac surgery.

PMID: 32637270 [PubMed]

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Association between early prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and birth defects: evidence from newborns in Xi'an, China.

J Public Health (Oxf). 2019 09 30;41(3):494-501

Authors: Wang L, Xiang X, Mi B, Song H, Dong M, Zhang S, Bi Y, Zhao Y, Li Q, Zhang Q, Zhang L, Yan H, Wang D, Dang S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate an association between birth defects and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particles ≤10 μm in an aerodynamic diameter (PM10) during early pregnancy in Xi'an, China.
METHODS: Birth defect data were from the Birth Defects Monitoring System of Xi'an, and data on ambient air pollutants during 2010-15 were from the Xi'an Environmental Protection Bureau. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to investigate the relationship between birth defects and ambient air pollutants.
RESULTS: Among the 8865 cases with birth defects analyzed, the overall incidence of birth defects was 117.33 per 10 000 infants. Ambient air pollutant exposure during the first trimester increased the risk of birth defects by 10.3% per 10 μg/m3 increment of NO2 and 3.4% per 10 μg/m3 increment of PM10. No significant association was found between birth defects and SO2. Moreover, NO2 increased risk of neural tube defects, congenital heart disease, congenital polydactyly, cleft palate, digestive system abnormalities and gastroschisis, and PM10 was associated with congenital heart disease and cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
CONCLUSIONS: Chinese women should avoid exposure to high levels of NO2 and PM10 during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

PMID: 30137461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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CMR feature tracking left ventricular strain-rate predicts ventricular tachyarrhythmia, but not deterioration of ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

Int J Cardiol. 2019 11 15;295:1-6

Authors: Hagdorn QAJ, Vos JDL, Beurskens NEG, Gorter TM, Meyer SL, van Melle JP, Berger RMF, Willems TP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Myocardial strain has been shown to predict outcome in various cardiovascular diseases, including congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature-tracking derived strain parameters in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients for developing ventricular tachycardia (VT) and deterioration of ventricular function.
METHODS: Patients with rTOF who underwent CMR investigation were included. Strain and strain-rate of both ventricles were assessed using CMR feature tracking. The primary outcome was a composite of the occurrence of sustained VT or non-sustained VT requiring invasive therapy. The secondary outcome was analyzed in patients that underwent a second CMR after 1.5 to 3.5 years. Deterioration was defined as reduction (≥10%) in right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, reduction (≥10%) in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction or increase (≥30 mL/m2) in indexed RV end-diastolic volume compared to baseline.
RESULTS: 172 patients (median age 24.3 years, 54 patients <18 years) were included. Throughout a median follow-up of 7.4 years, 9 patients (4.5%) experienced the primary endpoint of VT. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis showed that LV systolic circumferential strain-rate was independently predictive of primary outcome (p = 0.023). 70 patients underwent a serial CMR, of whom 14 patients (20%) showed ventricular deterioration. Logistic regression showed no predictive value of strain and strain-rate parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with rTOF, LV systolic circumferential strain-rate is an independent predictor for the development of VT. Ventricular strain parameters did not predict deterioration of ventricular function in the studied population.

PMID: 31402156 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Insights from circulating microRNAs in cardiovascular entities in turner syndrome patients.

PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231402

Authors: Abu-Halima M, Oberhoffer FS, El Rahman MA, Jung AM, Zemlin M, Rohrer TR, Kahraman M, Keller A, Meese E, Abdul-Khaliq H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder, in which a female is partially or entirely missing one of the two X chromosomes, with a prevalence of 1:2500 live female births. The present study aims to identify a circulating microRNA (miRNA) signature for TS patients with and without congenital heart disease (CHD).
METHODS: Microarray platform interrogating 2549 miRNAs were used to detect the miRNA abundance levels in the blood of 33 TS patients and 14 age-matched healthy volunteer controls (HVs). The differentially abundant miRNAs between the two groups were further validated by RT-qPCR.
RESULTS: We identified 60 differentially abundant miRNA in the blood of TS patients compared to HVs, from which, 41 and 19 miRNAs showed a higher and a lower abundance levels in TS patients compared to HVs, respectively. RT-qPCR confirmed the significantly higher abundance levels of eight miRNAs namely miR-374b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-340-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-30e-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-5695, and miR-26b-5p in TS patients as compared with the HVs. The abundance level of miR-5695 was higher in TS patients displaying CHD as compared to TS patients without CHD (p = 0.0265; log2-fold change 1.99); whereas, the abundance level of miR-126-3p was lower in TS patients with congenital aortic valve disease (AVD) compared to TS patients without BAV (p = 0.0139, log2-fold change 1.52). The clinical feature statistics revealed that miR-126-3p had a significant correlation with sinotubular junction Z-score (r = 0.42; p = 0.0154).
CONCLUSION: The identified circulating miRNAs signature for TS patients with manifestations associated with cardiovascular diseases provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of TS that may guide the development of novel diagnostic approaches.

PMID: 32271829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cardiac resynchronization therapy for the failing systemic right ventricle: A systematic review.

Int J Cardiol. 2020 Jul 06;:

Authors: Kharbanda RK, Moore JP, Taverne YJHJ, Bramer WM, Bogers AJJC, de Groot NMS

Abstract
Patients with a systemic right ventricle (SRV) are at high risk for development of heart failure early in life. An SRV is encountered in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) or dextro-transposition of the great arteries (DTGA) with previous atrial switch repair (Mustard or Senning procedure). Progressive heart failure is one of the leading cause of mortality in these patients. Therefore, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has gained increasing momentum for use in this challenging congenital heart disease (CHD) population. However, current guidelines differ in recommendations for CRT in patients with an SRV as evidence supporting CRT has thus far only been described in case reports and retrospectively in relatively small study populations. In fact, the European Society of Cardiology Guideline for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease consider CRT to be 'experimental' in this population. This systematic review critically summarizes current literature on CRT in SRV patients and provides future perspectives for further research in this challenging and growing CHD population.

PMID: 32645324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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[Risk factors for death and the clinical features of different subtypes of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to congenital heart disease].

Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2020 Apr 24;48(4):315-322

Authors: Xu ZY, Li QQ, Zhang C, Zhang HS, Gu H

Abstract
Objective: To explore the risk factors for death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) and the clinical characteristics of different subtypes in patients with PAH-CHD. Methods: It was a retrospective study. A total of 507 PAH-CHD patients, who were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology of Beijing Anzhen Hospital between September 2005 and May 2019, were included. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups: (1) Eisenmenger syndrome(ES) group. (2) PAH associated with prevalent systemic-to-pulmonary shunts(SP) group. (3) PAH associated with small defects(SD) group. (4) PAH after defect correction(CD) group. According to the complexity of cardiac malformation, patients were divided into simple-medium complex malformation group and complex malformation group. According to the location of shunts, patients were divided into pre-tricuspid group, post-tricuspid group, and mixed group or complex deformity group. Baseline clinical data of patients were collected from the electronic medical record system. Demographic data (age, gender, etc.), percutaneous oxygen saturation(SPO(2)), New York Heart Association(NYHA) cardiac function classification, 6 minutes walking distance(6MWD), and B type natriuretic peptide(BNP), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure(sPAP) estimated by echocardiography and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), mean right atrial pressure(mRAP), cardiac index(CI), and calculated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) estimated by right heart catheterization were compared among various groups. The results of regular follow-up of all enrolled patients were collected, including the status of monotherapy or combination of PAH-targeted drugs during the follow-up period, cardiac-related adverse events(hemopysis, syncope, edema, arrhythmia, etc.) and primary endpoint event(all-cause death) were obtained and analyzed. Risk factors for all-cause death were analyzed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis model. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 23.1(13.9,32.1) years, 345 cases(68.0%) were female. Two hunderds and thirty-five cases(46.4%) were diagnosed with ES; 193 cases(38.1%) were diagnosed with CD, 47 cases (9.3%) were diagnosed with SD. Among them, 32 cases(6.3%) were in the SP group. All 507 patients underwent echocardiography examination, there were significant differences in sPAP among different clinical subgroups(P<0.001). A total of 289 patients(57.0%) received right heart catheterization examination, the results showed that the ES group had the highest mPAP and PVR and the lowest mRAP(all P<0.001), the CD group had the highest mRAP and CI(both P<0.001). The 6MWD in the ES group was significantly shorter than that in the SP, SD, and CD groups(all P<0.001). The proportion of patients with NYHA class Ⅲ/Ⅳ was higher in SD group than in SP group(P<0.001), which was similar between SD, ES and CD groups (P values were 0.077 and 0.072, respectively). At admission, the proportion of patients with NYHA class Ⅰ/Ⅱwas the highest in SP group(96.9% (31/32) ), followed by CD group (85.5%(165/193)) and the ES group(85.1%(200/235)), and the SD group(75.0%(35/47)). The BNP level at admission was also higher in SD group than in SP, ES and CD groups(P<0.001). Of the 507 patients, 379(74.8%) patients received PAH-targeted drug therapy at the last follow-up, and the treatment plan was mainly monotherapy(75.7%(287/379)). The median follow-up time was 3.6(2.0, 5.6) years and 37(7.3%) patients died, including 13 in the CD group, 17 in the ES group, and 7 in the SD group. No deaths occurred in the SP group. Right heart failure was the most common cause of death(11(29.7%)), followed by severe hemoptysis dyspnea(7(18.9%)), sudden cardiac death(6(16.2%)), and pulmonary hypertensive crisis(4(10.8%)). Kaplan-Meier curve showed that survival rates of end-point-free events at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of PAH were 98.0%, 95.4%, 89.9%, and 84.4%, respectively; there were statistically significant differences in survival among the subgroups(P=0.026); there was no significant difference in the survival rate between the ES group and the CD group(P=0.918), and both were higher than the SD group(P values were 0.011 and 0.013, respectively). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that NYHA class Ⅲ/Ⅳ and BNP>100 ng/L at admission were the risk factors for all-cause death in patients with PAH-CHD(HR=6.452, 95%CI 3.378-12.346, P<0.001, and HR=2.481, 95%CI 1.225-5.025, P=0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that NYHA class Ⅲ/Ⅳ was an independent risk factor for all-cause death in patients with PAH-CHD(HR=4.998, 95%CI 1.246-20.055, P=0.023). Conclusions: PAH-CHD patients with different clinical subtypes have different clinical symptoms, cardiac functional class, hemodynamic characteristics, and mid to long-term survival rates. SP patients have the best prognosis, outcome of ES and CD patients is similar, and SD patients have the worst prognosis. NYHA class Ⅲ/Ⅳ is an independent risk factor for all-cause death in patients with PAH-CHD.

PMID: 32370483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Invasive Hemodynamic Characteristics in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve-In-Valve Implantation for Treatment of Tricuspid Stenosis.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2020 Jul;11(4):411-416

Authors: Patel K, Sadeghi S, Aboulhosn J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We sought to describe invasive hemodynamic measurements in patients with tricuspid stenosis (TS) undergoing transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve (TVIV) implantation immediately pre- and postimplantation. Development of TS in patients who have undergone surgical tricuspid valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve is a serious complication that leads to elevated right atrial (RA) pressures and decreased cardiac output. Transcatheter TVIV implantation is a viable alternative to surgical tricuspid valve replacement, but data on the hemodynamic consequences of TVIV for the treatment of severe TS are currently limited to echocardiographic assessment of Doppler-derived gradients.
METHODS: Eleven patients undergoing transcatheter TVIV implantation with moderate to severe bioprosthetic valve stenosis were selected for retrospective review. Right atrial mean pressure, right ventricular (RV) systolic and end-diastolic pressure, mean diastolic RA-RV pressure gradient, pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary artery systolic, end-diastolic and mean pressures, and pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) both before and after transcatheter valve placement were collected from catheterization reports.
RESULTS: After transcatheter TVIV implantation, the mean TS gradient decreased significantly (P < .01), while the mean RV end-diastolic pressure increased (P = .046). Pulmonary artery pulsatility index also increased as the TS was relieved (P = .039).
CONCLUSIONS: Tricuspid valve-in-valve implantation results in immediate relief of TS, leading to increased RV preload with resultant augmentation of RV and pulmonary pressures. Increased PAPi following the procedure demonstrates acute improvement in RV output but remains low due to the failure of the RA pressure to decline significantly immediately following intervention.

PMID: 32645780 [PubMed - in process]

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